Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude towards Breast Self-examination: A Cross-sectional Study among Female Pharmacy Students in Malaysia
International Research Journal of Oncology,
Aim: The aim of this study was 1) to assess awareness and knowledge towards breast cancer (BC) and breast self examination (BSE) among female pharmacy students in Malaysia. 2) to assess attitude towards practise of BSE among female pharmacy students in Malaysia and 3) to understand the association between awareness, knowledge and attitude towards breast self examination among socio-demographic variables.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Female students from Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Kedah State, Malaysia between September, 2018 and May, 2019.
Methodology: A pre-validated questionnaire containing socio-demographic details of the study participants, six awareness based items regarding breast cancer (BC), fourteen knowledge based items regarding breast self-examination (BSE) and fifteen attitude based items towards BSE behaviour. The questionnaire was distributed in class room setting after obtaining informed consent forms signed by participants. Summary statistics for categorical variables was used with chi-square test to see if there was any association between the variables.
Results: The overall response rate was 92% (183/200). The average age of participants was 22 years (22.8 ± 1.1). Nearly 82% were Chinese, 30% belonged to year-4 tertiary education, 12% had family history of BC and 45% were from town areas. The overall awareness of the participants towards BC was moderate (64%, P < .05), whereas, knowledge towards BSE was poor (51%, P < .05). There was an overall positive attitude (62%, P < .001), followed by 29% neutral and only 9% with negative attitude regarding BSE practise. There were no association found between awareness, knowledge and attitude among any socio-demographic variables.
Conclusion: This study results confirm that the study participants had a fair awareness, poor knowledge and positive attitude. Educational interventions directed to help young women familiarize with their breast self awareness (detect changes early) to start a lifetime habit of breast self-care, including BSE is important. Health education programs tailored to educate the correct BSE techniques are essential to encourage and improve women practise BSE for early identification and treatment initiation to reduce morbidity and mortality of BC.
- breast cancer
- breast self examination
How to Cite
Birhane K, Alemayehu M, Anawte B, Gebremariyam G, Daniel R, Addis S, et al. Practices of breast self-examination and associated factors among female Debre Berhan University students. Int. J. Breast Cancer. 2017;2017:1-6.
American Cancer Society. History of ACS recommendations for the early detection of cancer in people without symptoms; 2017. Available:https://www.cancer.org/health-care-professionals/american-cancer-society-prevention-early-detection-guidelines/overview/chronological-history-of-acs-recommendations.html.
Oeffinger KC, Fontham ET, Etzioni R, Herzig A, Michaelson JS, Shih YC, et al. Breast cancer screening for women at average risk: 2015 guideline update from the American Cancer Society. Jama. 2015; 314(15):1599-1614.
Ngugi A, Ochieng P, Mwenda AS, Salam RA, Sayed S. Training health workers in clinical breast examination for early detection of breast cancer in low‐and middle‐income countries. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2017;2017(1).
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(6):394-424.
Azizah Ab M, Nor Saleha IT, Noor Hashimah A, Asmah ZA, et al. MNCRR, 2007-2011; 2016.
Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Brawley OW. Cancer screening in the United States: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin. 2012;62(2): 129-42.
Doshi D, Reddy BS, Kulkarni S, Karunakar P. Breast self-examination: Knowledge, attitude and practice among female dental students in Hyderabad city, India. Indian J. Palliat. Care. 2012;18(1):68-73.
Raosoft. Sample Size Calculator.
Cohen JA. Coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 1960;2;20(1):37-46.
Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates publishers, London; 1988.
Ibnawadh SK, Alawad MA, Alharbi SS, Alduawihi NA, Alkowiter FS, Alsalhy AE, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination among females in medical and non-medical colleges in Qassim University. J Health Spec. 2017;5 (4):219.
Tazhibi M, Feizi A. Awareness levels about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and screening and therapeutic approaches among Iranian adult women: a large population based study using latent class analysis. Biomed. Res. Int. 2014;1-9.
Taha H, Al-Qutob R, Nyström L, Wahlström R, Berggren V. “Voices of Fear and Safety” women’s ambivalence towards breast cancer and breast health: A qualitative study from Jordan. BMC Women's Health. 2012;12:21.
Donnelly TT, Hwang J. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review. J Immigr Minor Health. 2015;17(3):925-39.
Muttappallymyalil J, Sreedharan J, Venkatramana M, Thomas M. Attitude and practice of nurses in imparting knowledge on breast self examination to women in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Int J Cancer Manag. 2010;3(3):e80703.
Hole G. APA format for statistical notation and other things: Analysis of Covariance, Reporting Statistics in APA Style. 2012;1-4.
Kwok C, Ogunsiji O, Lee CF. Validation of the breast cancer screening beliefs questionnaire among African Australian women. BMC Public Health. 2015;16 (1):117.
DOI: 10.1186/ s12889-016-2793-7
Noroozi A, Jomand T, Tahmasebi R. Determinants of breast self-examination performance among Iranian women: An application of the health belief model. J Cancer Educ. 2011;26(2):365-74.
Siddharth R, Gupta D, Narang R, Singh P. Knowledge, attitude and practice about breast cancer and breast self-examination among women seeking out-patient care in a teaching hospital in central India. Indian J. Cancer. 2016;53(2):226-229.
Al-Azmy SF, Alkhabbaz A, Almutawa HA, Ismaiel AE, Makboul G, El-Shazly MK. Practicing breast self-examination among women attending primary health care in Kuwait. Alexandria J. Med. 2013;49(3): 281-86.
Parkin DM. Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncol. 2001;1;2(9):533-43.
Lee M, Mariapun S, Rajaram N, Teo SH, Yip CH. Performance of a subsidised mammographic screening programme in Malaysia, a middle-income Asian country. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):127.
Siu AL. Screening for breast cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164:279–96.
Galukande M, Kiguli-Malwadde E. Rethinking breast cancer screening strategies in resource-limited settings. Afr. health sci. 2010;10(1):89-92.
Pearlman M, Jeudy M, Chelmow D. Breast cancer risk assessment and screening in average-risk women. Obstet. Gynecol. 2017;130(1):E1-6.
Obaji NC, Elom HA, Agwu UM, Nwigwe CG, Ezeonu PO, Umeora OU. Awareness and practice of breast self. Examination among market women in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2013;3(1):7-12.
Kommula AL, Borra S, Kommula VM. Awareness and practice of breast self examination among women in south India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3:391-94.
Akuffo FO. The level of knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination among nurses in the Effia nkwanta regional hospital in the Sekondi Takoradi metropolis (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Coast); 2014.
Fondjo LA, Owusu-Afriyie O, Sakyi SA, Wiafe AA, Amankwaa B, Acheampong E, et al. Comparative assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast self-examination among female secondary and tertiary school students in Ghana. Int. J. breast cancer. 2018;2018.
Tuyen DQ, Dung TV, Dong HV, Kien TT, Huong TT. Breast self-examination: Knowledge and practice among female textile workers in Vietnam. Cancer Control. 2019;26(1):1-7.
Shakor JK, Mohammed AK, Karotia D. Determinants of breast self-examination practice amongst Iraqi/Sulaimani Women using Champion Health Belief Model and Breast CAM. Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2019;8(9):51-59.
Noroozi A, Tahmasebi R. Is health locus of control a modifying factor in the health belief model for prediction of breast self-examination? Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2016;17(4): 2229-33.
Ahmed FA, Elmatti HA. The effectiveness of breast health promotion counseling on breast cancer screening behaviors among female patients. Life Sci. J. 2014;11(8): 835-45.
Mohamed HAEA, Ibrahim YM, Lamadah SM, Hassan M, El-Magd A. Application of the health belief model for breast cancer screening and implementation of breast self-examination educational program for female students of selected medical and non-medical faculties at Umm al Qura University. Life Sci. J. 2016;13(5):21-33.
Masoudiyekta L, Rezaei-Bayatiyani H, Dashtbozorgi B, Gheibizadeh M, Malehi AS, Moradi M. Effect of education based on health belief model on the behavior of breast cancer screening in women. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2018;5(1): 114-20.
Ali AN, Yuan FJ, Ying CH, Ahmed NZ. Effectiveness of intervention on awareness and knowledge of breast self-examination among the potentially at risk population for best cancer. Asian Oncol. Res. J. 2019;2 (1):1-13.
Abstract View: 2545 times
PDF Download: 974 times