Heavy Metal Contamination and It’s Cancer Risk in Swampy Agricultural Soils across Karu, Nasarawa West, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Usman Rilwan
Auta Abdullahi Abbas
Shu’aib Muhammad
Hassan Abdullahi Abdullahi


Swampy agricultural soils could be contaminated as a result of accumulation of heavy metals through emission from industrial areas, mines tailings, metal wastes, gasoline, paints, fertilizers, manure, sewage sludge, pesticide, waste water irrigation, coal combustion residue, spillage of petrochemicals and atmospheric deposition. This study aimed at evaluating the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the study area using X-Ray fluoroscopy. The results showed that, mean concentration level in the area was in decreasing order Cu(342.2) > Cr(486.6) > Ni(339.1) > Zn(421.6) >Pb(331) > Cd(336.6) > As(31.7). The Hazard Quotient (HQ) was all recorded to be low except ingestion adult which was higher than unity. The Hazard Index (HI) was also recorded to be 2.3 a value greater than one (>>1). This makes non-carcinogenic effects significant to the population and poses serious effects in the area under study. The total excess life cancer risk was found to be (5.0 x 10-2), a value greater than that of U.S (1.0x10-4 to 1.0x10-6) and above that of South Africa (5.0x10-6). This implies that there is a probability that one person in 1,000 may be affected. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the soils and the crops cultivated at the sample locations is recommended.

Heavy metals, swampy, agricultural, soils, rain-fed rice, risk exposure.

Article Details

How to Cite
Rilwan, U., Abbas, A. A., Muhammad, S., & Abdullahi, H. A. (2020). Heavy Metal Contamination and It’s Cancer Risk in Swampy Agricultural Soils across Karu, Nasarawa West, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Oncology, 3(2), 1-12. Retrieved from https://journalirjo.com/index.php/IRJO/article/view/30124
Original Research Article


Ogamba EN, Izah SC, Ofoni AS. Bio accumulation of heavy metals in the gills and liver of a Common Niger Delta Wetland fish Clarias Gariepinus. 2016;7(1): 17.

Pais I, Stoeppler M. Hazardous metals in the environment. Amsterdam. Elsevier Publishers. 1997;36.

Izah SC, Chakrabarty N, Srivastav AL. Review on heavy metals concentration in portable water sources in Nigeria. Human Health and Mitigating Measures. 2016;5(9):285-304.

Iwegbue CMA, Bassey FI, Tesi GO, Nwajei GE, Tsafe AI. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soils around cassava processing mills in sub-urban areas of Delta State, Southern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2013;21(2):96-104.

Pattabhi S, Madhavakrishan S, Manickavasagam K, Rasppan K, Vanekatesh R, Shabudeen PSS. Activated carbon used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni (ii) from aqueous solution. Environmental Journal on Chemistry. 2008;5(4):761-769.

Evans CE, Omoaruemike EO, Muhammed AV. Effect of fermentation varriables on nutritional and organoleptic scores of Kunu Zaki produced from rice and acha blends. Abuja, Nigeria. Advanced Journal Food Science and Technology. 2012;9(4):1117.

Umar M, Waseem A, Sabir MA, Kassi AM. The impact of geology of recharge areas on ground water quality: A case study of Zhob River Basin, Pakistan. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2013;4(1):32.

USEPA. Risk guidance for super fund human health evaluation manual part (A). Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. 2010;1.

Department of Environmental Affairs. The frame work for the management of contaminated land, South Africa; 2000.
(Accessed on May, 2018)
Available:http/sawic.Environment.Gov.za/ document

Chaoua S, Boussaa S, El-Gharmali A, Boumezzough A. Impact of irrigation with wastewater on accumulation of heavy metals in soil and crops in the Region of Marrakech in Morocco. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2018;4(2):13.

WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 4th Ed. 2011;2.