Main Article Content
The epidemiology of cancer of the cervix refers to the scientific study of the spread and control of the disease. In the Niger Delta region in Nigeria, cervical cancer presents as a public health concern among women in their prime age. This cancer of the uterine cervix is usually followed by a long phase of pre-invasive disease that lasts for about 10-15 years. It is characterized by a spectrum of events which progresses from cellular-dysplasia to invasive cervical cancer. It is the second most common cancer among women and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women not only in Niger Delta Region, but worldwide. Its incidence rate is approximately 25 per 100,000 women. If we were to conduct a one-time screening over one year, 8000 new invasive cervical cancers would be detected. Basic and epidemiologic research conducted during the past 15-20 years has provided overwhelming evidence regarding the etiologic role of infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV) as the primary cause of cervical cancer. The relative risks of cervical cancer following HPV infection as ascertained in case-control and cohort studies are among the highest in cancer epidemiology. Virtually all cervical carcinoma specimens contain HPV DNA, which suggests that HPV infection is a related cause of cervical neoplasia. Therefore, detailed knowledge of cervical cancer will help reduce its occurrence in an undeveloped region such as Niger Delta, Nigeria.
Jedy-Agba E, Curado MP, Ogunbiyi O, Oga E, Fabowale T, Igbinoba F, Osubor G, Otu T, Kumai H, Koechlin A. Cancer incidence in Nigeria: A report from population-based cancer registries. Cancer Epidemiology. 2012;36(5):271–278.
Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127: 2893–2917.
Ntekim A. Cervical cancer in sub Saharan Africa. Intechopen; 2012.
Onwasigwe CN. Overview of Non-communicable diseases in Nigeria. Lecture delivered at the Annual Continuing Education Workshop for Community Health Officers. Enugu, Nigeria; 2011.
Singh A, Settleman J. EMT, cancer stem cells and drug resistance: an emerging axis of evil in the war on cancer. Oncogene, 2010;29(34):4741-4751.
United Nations Programme on HIV/IDS (UNAIDS). HPV, HIV and cervical cancer; 2016.
World Health Organization (WHO). Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control: A guide to essential practice. 2nd Edition; 2014.
Sherris J, Wittet S, Kleine A, Sellors J, Luciani S, Sankaranarayanan R. International Perspectives on Sexual Reproductive Health. 2009;35(3): 147-154.
American Cancer Society. Screening Guidelines for the Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer; 2012.
Vaccine. Human papillomavirus in the etiology of human cancer. 2006;24:1–10.
Onyije FM, Waritimi EG, Atoni AD. Comparative study on the knowledge of breast cancer among females in rural and urban areas of Nigeria. 2012;2(4):120-124.
Cancer.net. Cervical cancer–Risk factors; 2014.
US cancer statistics working group: United States cancer statistics: 1999– 2007 (2010) Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report, US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute. Atlanta GA; 2010.
Hoque E, Hoque M. Knowledge of and attitude towards cervical cancer among female university students in South Africa. 2015;24(1):21-24.
Thun MJ, DeLancey JO, Center MM, Jemal A, Ward EM. The global burden of cancer: priorities for prevention. Carcinogenesis; 2010;31(1):100–110.
Horo A, Jaquet A, Ekouevi DK, Toure B, Coffie PA, Effi B, Messou E, Minga A, Moh R, Kone M. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection in Cote d'Ivoire, operational and clinical aspects according to HIV status. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12(1):237.
Gichangi PB, Bwayo J, Estambale B, De Vuyst H, Ojwang S, Rogo K, Abwao H, Temmerman M. Impact of HIV infection on invasive cervical cancer in Kenyan women. AIDS. 2003;17(13):1963–1968.
Afri---Dev. Info. Africa Cervical Cancer Multi Indicator Incidence & Mortality Scorecard Research, Analysis, & Design By Africa Health, Human & Social Development Information Service (Afri---Dev. Info i.e. Formerly Africa Public Health .Info) & Africa Coalition On Maternal Newborn & Child Health; 2014.
Ahmed SA, Sabitu K, Idris SH, Ahmed R. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Journal. 2013;54(5):316–319.
Ajenifuja OK. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and Utilization of Pap Smear Among Patients in a Tertiary Centre in South West Nigeria. Ibom Medical Journal. 2008;3(2);56–60.
Nwozor CM, Oragudosi A. Awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in onitsha, South-East, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences. 2013;3(8):283-288.
Cyril CD, Esther E, Madubuko T, Ngozi R, Ezegwui HU. Improved awareness of Pap smear may not affect its use in Nigeria: A case study of female medical practitioners in Enugu, south eastern Nigeria. Transact. Royal Society Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009;103: 852-854.
Abotchie PN, Shokar NK. Cervical cancer screening among college students in Ghana: knowledge and health beliefs. Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer. 2009;19:412-416.
Guilbert E, Boroditsky R, Black A, Kives S, Leboeuf M, Mirosh M, et al. Canadian Consensus Guideline on Continuous and Extended Hormonal Contraception. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2007;29:1-32.
Mutyaba T, Mmiro FA, Weiderpass E. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. BMC Medical Education. 2006; 6:13.
Lyimo FS, Beran TN. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications. BMC Public Health, 2012;12: 22.
DOI: 10.1186/1471- 2458-12-22.