Frequency and Pattern of All Cancer Cases at Thika Level Five Hospital in Kiambu County, Kenya

Main Article Content

Patrick K. Ruto
Esther Muitta
Alfred Owino
Francis W. Makokha

Abstract

Aims: To determine the frequency and pattern of cancer cases and provide baseline for the establishment of a cancer registry based on calculated incidence rates, prevalence, and morbidity of cancer cases.

Study Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional design was applied.

Place and Duration of Study: Thika Level Five Hospital cancer pain management department, between April 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: A total of 574 records of cancer patients were examined from the clinical health registers of cancer patients for cancers that occurred between January 2013-December 2018 from the health records department of the cancer pain management department in the hospital. In Thika Level Five Hospital for data abstraction. Variables such as sex, age of patient, date of cancer incidence, primary anatomical sites of cancer origins including the county of patient residence were recorded in defined standardized abstraction forms specific for each noted cancer case. Proportionate cancer frequency, incidence rates and morbidity for every year under investigation was calculated. In each frequency it is absolute value and proportions are in percentages. The quantitative data was entered into Excel spreadsheet and cleaned, and after coding, the data was imported into SPSS version 21 for analysis. Approval was obtained from Mount Kenya University (MKU) Institutional Research Ethics Committee and a license obtained from National Commission of Science, Technology, and Innovation (NACOSTI). Authorization to collect data was obtained from Thika Level Five Hospital.

Results: Data was abstracted from 574 records out of which186 (32.4%) were for male patients while 387 (67.4%) were for female patients. The top ten cancers by site where cervix 146 (24.0%), breast 88 (14.0%), esophagus 88 (13.4%), stomach 49 (10.1%%), prostate 29 (5.1%), liver 26 (4.2%), colorectal 22 (3.8%), skin 20 (3.5%), pancreas17 (3.0%), and gall bladder 10 (1.7%). The proportionate cancer morbidity of both in-patient and out-patient prevalence between January 2013 and December 2018 for all ages was 49.6 per 100,000 population. Patient age ranged from 2-100 years, with a mean age of 57.2 years Kiambu County had most of the cancer patient at 43% followed by Murang’a County (38%) and Machakos County (4%).

Conclusion: Cervical cancer was identified to be the most common cancer generally while esophagus cancer and breast cancers were the major cancer types among females and males, respectively. Also, at the age of 55 - 69 years one is at higher risk of developing cancer as this age group accounts for more than 50% of the reported cases.

Keywords:
Prevalence, incidence, cancer, registry.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ruto, P. K., Muitta, E., Owino, A., & Makokha, F. W. (2020). Frequency and Pattern of All Cancer Cases at Thika Level Five Hospital in Kiambu County, Kenya. International Research Journal of Oncology, 3(4), 1-9. Retrieved from https://journalirjo.com/index.php/IRJO/article/view/30138
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int. J. Cancer, 2010; 127:2893–2917. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.25516

Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA. Cancer J. Clin. 2018;68:394–424. DOI: 10.3322/caac.21492

Globocan. New Global Cancer Data: GLOBOCAN. 2018;2018:1–2.

Morhason-Bello IO, et al. Challenges and opportunities in cancer control in Africa: A perspective from the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14:142–e151. DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70482-5

Adeloye D, et al. Estimating the incidence of breast cancer in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Glob J. Health. 2018;8:1. DOI: 10.7189/jogh.08.010419

Thika level 5 hospital is becoming pain-free | Kehpca. Available:https://kehpca.org/thika-level-5-hospital-is-becoming-pain-free/ (Accessed Jul. 20, 2020).

White MC, Holman DM, Boehm JE, Peipins LA, Grossman M, Jane Henley S. Age and cancer risk: A potentially modifiable relationship. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2014;46(3)SUPPL1:S7. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.029

CDC, United States Cancer Statistics Public Information Data; 2018.

Age and Cancer Risk. Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4544764/ (Accessed Jul. 21, 2020).

White MC, Holman DM, Boehm JE, Peipins LA, Grossman M, Jane Henley S. Age and cancer risk: A potentially modifiable relationship. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2014;46(3)SUPPL1:S7. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.029

Cancers after the age of 75 | Cancer Society of Finland. [Online]. Available:https://www.cancersociety.fi/publications/reports/cancer-in-finland-2016/cancers-after-the-age-of-75/ Accessed: Jul. 21, 2020.

Muitta E, Were T, Nyamache AK, Muhoho N. Atypical cervical cytomorphologic predictors: A descriptive study of pre-cervical cancer patients of low education in kenya. Pan Afr. Med. J. 2019;33. DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2019.33.124.15753

Wang H, Liu J, Xia G, Lei S, Huang X, Huang X. Survival of pancreatic cancer patients is negatively correlated with age at diagnosis: A population-based retrospective study. Sci. Rep. 2020;10:1–9. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-64068-3

Li N, Wang X, Zhang H, Wang H. Young male breast cancer, a small crowd, the survival, and prognosis? A population-based study. Med. (United States). 2018; 97:40 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000012686

Ju HY, et al. Second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer: A nationwide population-based study in Korea. PLoS One. 2018;13:11. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207243

Macharia LW, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. Burden of cancer in Kenya: Types, infection-attributable and trends. A national referral hospital retrospective survey. AAS Open Res. 2018;1:25. DOI: 10.12688/aasopenres.12910.1

Moodley J, Cairncross L, Naiker T, Constant D. From symptom discovery to treatment - Women’s pathways to breast cancer care: A cross-sectional study. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:312. DOI: 10.1186/s12885-018-4219-7

Cancers after the age of 75 | Cancer Society of Finland. Available:https://www.cancersociety.fi/publications/reports/cancer-in-finland-2016/cancers-after-the-age-of-75/ (Accessed Jul. 21, 2020).

Weiderpass E, et al. Estimates of incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in 2018: a worldwide analysis. Artic. Lancet Glob Heal. 2019;8:191–203. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30482-6

Ferlay J, et al. Estimating the global cancer incidence and mortality in 2018: GLOBOCAN sources and methods. International Journal of Cancer. Wiley-Liss Inc. 2019;144(8):1941–1953. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31937

Erratum: Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA. Cancer J. Clin; 2020. DOI: 10.3322/caac.21609

Macharia LW, Mureithi MW, Anzala O. Cancer in Kenya: Types and infection-attributable. Data from the adult population of two National referral hospitals (2008-2012). AAS Open Res. 2019;1:25. DOI: 10.12688/aasopenres.12910.5

Njoroge GN, Kibunga JW. Herbal medicine acceptance, sources and utilization for diarrhoea management in a cosmopolitan urban area (Thika, Kenya).

Fitzmaurice C, et al. Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years for 29 cancer groups, 1990 to 2016 a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study global burden o. JAMA Oncol. 2018; 4(11):1553–1568. DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.2706

Global cancer data by country | World Cancer Research Fund. Available:https://www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/cancer-trends/data-cancer-frequency-country (Accessed Jul. 23, 2020).

Cancer - Our World in Data. Available:https://ourworldindata.org/cancer (accessed Jul. 23, 2020).

IARC, Cancer registration: principles and methods. 1991;95.

Parkin DM. The role of cancer registries in cancer control. International Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2008;13:102–111. DOI: 10.1007/s10147-008-0762-6

Korir A, et al. Economic analysis of the Nairobi Cancer Registry: Implications for expanding and enhancing cancer registration in Kenya. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;45:520–529. DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2016.11.006