International Research Journal of Oncology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Oncology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish case reports related to all aspects of oncology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> International Research Journal of Oncology en-US International Research Journal of Oncology Transformation of a Breast Fibroadenoma to Borderline Phyllodes Tumor in a 20-Year-Old-Girl with Diagnostic Difficulties: A Case Report & Review of Literature <p>We are reporting a rare case of 20 year old girl who presented with lump in the left breast at the age of 18 years. She underwent Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) twice and it was diagnosed as fibroadenoma. Conservative treatment had been advised to her but within next two years, there was gradual increase in the size of the lump to acquire a size of 4x3 cm. Again she underwent evaluation outside with repeat FNAC which was reported as benign breast disease. After consultation with us, we had advised core needle biopsy which was indeterminate. Therefore, we planned wide local excision of the lesion and final pathology turned out as borderline phyllodes tumor. Phyllodes tumor are not true sarcomas. Sometimes they have cystic components also. Their biological behavior and cellular origin is different from the origin of true sarcomas. Most commonly they occur in females with median age of presentation of 42 to 45 years. High grade tumors are found in elderly patients. Clinically approximately 20 % of these tumors presents as non palpable lesion which is picked up by screening mammography.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The definitive histopathological diagnosis of phyllodes tumor is possible only after surgical excision and the principle of surgical excision is excision with clear wide margins to avoid local recurrence.</p> Sachin S. Kadam Hrishikesh Chevale Tejaswini Kadam Bhushan Kathuria ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 40 46 Epidemiology of Cancer of the Cervix in Rivers State, Niger Delta <p>The epidemiology of cancer of the cervix refers to the scientific study of the spread and control of the disease. In the Niger Delta region in Nigeria, cervical cancer presents as a public health concern among women in their prime age. This cancer of the uterine cervix is usually followed by a long phase of pre-invasive disease that lasts for about 10-15 years. It is characterized by a spectrum of events which progresses from cellular-dysplasia to invasive cervical cancer. It is the second most common cancer among women and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women not only in Niger Delta Region, but worldwide. Its incidence rate is approximately 25 per 100,000 women. If we were to conduct a one-time screening over one year, 8000 new invasive cervical cancers would be detected. Basic and epidemiologic research conducted during the past 15-20 years has provided overwhelming evidence regarding the etiologic role of infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV) as the primary cause of cervical cancer. The relative risks of cervical cancer following HPV infection as ascertained in case-control and cohort studies are among the highest in cancer epidemiology. Virtually all cervical carcinoma specimens contain HPV DNA, which suggests that HPV infection is a related cause of cervical neoplasia. Therefore, detailed knowledge of cervical cancer will help reduce its occurrence in an undeveloped region such as Niger Delta, Nigeria.</p> Azuonwu, Goodluck Timothy, Theresa E. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 1 12 Synergistic Effect of 5-Fluorouracil Combined with Naringin in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells <p>Antimetabolite established as a successful therapeutics for advanced-stage breast cancers, but has recurrently shown to exhibit major side effects, which restrict drug therapy interventions. The most widely used chemotherapeutic agent is 5-Fluorouracil, however the recent report suggests that its antineoplastic activity is limited due to drug resistance developed by the cancer cells. The resistance results in the decrease in efficacy of 5-FU to improve either invasive disease-free survival or overall survival. In order to enhance 5-Fluorouracil mediated cytotoxicity, we have attempted the combination of the natural compound Naringin with 5-Fluorouracil. The combination of 5-Fluorouracil and Naringin inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells determined using MTT assay. Importantly, combined treatment showed synergistic enhancement of breast cancer cell cytotoxicity. We next confirmed the cytotoxicity profile of the combination 5-Fluorouracil and Naringin in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with trypan blue-based cell viability assay and determined that the IC<sub>50</sub> value is 80 μM. When 5-Fluorouuracil and Naringin incubated there is a 7–10-fold increase in cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. These results demonstrates that application of naringin as an adjuvant treatment during 5-Fluorouracil administration might enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil.</p> Thangavel Muthusamy L. Roshini Yadav Satish Ramalingam Ilangovan Ramachandran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 13 27 Effect of Health Education Programme on Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women of Child Bearing Age in Anambra State, Nigeria <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed at finding out the effect of Health Education programme on knowledge of cervical cancer screening among women of child bearing age in Anambra State.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka and General Hospital Onitsha between June 2019 to September 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Using multi-stage (purposive) sampling technique, the sample size for this study consisted of one hundred and eighty four (184) women (134) subjects for experimental group and 50 subjects for control group) attending antenatal in public hospitals in Anambra State. The instrument contained five questions on demographic data of the respondents, questions on knowledge of cervical cancer and practice questions with four point response options. The reliability of the instrument was established by using Cronbach alpha for estimating the internal consistency of the instrument. The means and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions and inferential statistics (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance in the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings indicated health education programme was effective and significantly increased cervical cancer screening knowledge of women of child bearing age. On the basis of the findings, it was recommended that awareness campaigns and education programmes to enlighten the public about cervical cancer screening should be broad to encompass signs and symptoms, risk factors and modes of prevention of the disease.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Health education programme significantly increases the knowledge and screening practice. The knowledge transfer to the women was effective. According to the results, the trainings for cervical cancer and early diagnosis can be given to the health workers who are the role models for the women and societies within the framework of theoretical models tested, and the validity and reliabilities have been proven.</p> Nwankwo Nonyelum Stella Ogbalu Anthony Ikechukwu Nnaemezie Nkiru Onyinyechukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-17 2020-08-17 28 39 Cervical Cancer Screening in a Low–Resource Setting: Buea-Cameroon <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cervical cancer screening is not widely performed in developing countries like Cameroon. We conducted “one-day-screening” in Buea. Methods: The study was performed at the Buea Regional Hospital, Annex on the 2nd of November, 2019. A MobileODT colposcopic device was used to enhance visualization of the cervix and, if necessary, treatment as thermal coagulation or Loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) was done at the same time. Before the screening, questionnaires were administered to participants.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> of 140 women who agreed to participate, 124 (89%) completed the screening procedure: the mean age; 36.53 (±12.17) and reported negative HIV; 98%. Of the 124, 8 (6.5%) were screened positive, i.e., Low squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 7 (5.6%) and High squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 1 (0.8%).Out of the 8, 2 met treatment criteria. However, only one accepted treatment. The HSIL was excised and histopathology confirmed a CIN2 lesion. Although 111 (89.5%) participants believed that cervical cancer is preventable, only 37 (29.8%) had been previously screened and just one had previously been vaccinated against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> One-day cervical cancer screening may provide an opportunity to treat and educate women on the importance of cervical cancer screening. The “see and treat” effectiveness should be confirmed by larger studies.</p> A. Tassang G. E. Halle- Ekane D. Nembulefack G. Enow- Orock F. Nchang Cho T. Ewane T. Tassang C. Ewang Ebong A. E. Enow- Orock L. Folefac W. Ndakason G. Ncham P. Ngum Fru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 47 55