International Research Journal of Oncology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Research Journal of Oncology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish case reports related to all aspects of oncology.&nbsp;By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> International Research Journal of Oncology en-US International Research Journal of Oncology Recurrent Intestinal Obstruction in a Teenager with Small-bowel Adenocarcinoma in a Classic Case of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with incomplete penetrance. It is characterised by gastrointestinal (GI) hamartomatous polyps and mucocutaneous pigmentation, including the lips and gums. The GI hamartomatous polyps in PJS are associated with a significantly increased risk of malignant transformation. Intestinal lesions may be evident from bleeding but more commonly arise from painful intestinal cramps related to obstruction due to recurrent intussusception. Small-bowel surveillance in the Paediatric population with PJS is not designed to identify small-bowel malignancy, which is thought to arise in adulthood.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>We reported the case of a 13-year-old African descent boy who presented with colicky abdominal pain and passage of mucoid non-bloody stool. Examination revealed a child in painful with pigmentation of the bucal mucosa. The abdomen was distended with generalised tenderness. An urgent abdominal Ultrasound Scan (USS) showed dilated bowel loops with increased peristalsis suggestive of intestinal obstruction. Laparotomy was undertaken, and adhesiolysis and polypectomy were done. Histology of the polyp revealed a malignant epithelial tumour consistent with carcinomatous transformation of hamartomatous polyp.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This report is an earliest onset of small-bowel adenocarcinoma in PJS-like case, an observation relevant to surveillance guidelines. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> H. M. Yusuf A. G. Farouk A. B. Zarami S. I. Wala A. I. Rabasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-19 2022-07-19 1 7 Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Program on Knowledge Regarding Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Its Home Management among Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy in Selected Regional Cancer Hospital Shimla at Himachal Pradesh, India <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Cancer is a multi-factorial disease in which cellular reproduction process goes out of control. Chemotherapy is a widely used treatment for cancer in which cytotoxic drugs or anti-neoplastic drugs are used to kill or shrink fast-growing cells in the body, but it also result in various side effects which depend on the type of drug, dosage, frequency and its duration of administration. Several home remedies are also used to overcome these side effects. Thus, the study aimed to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge regarding side effects of chemotherapy and its home management among cancer patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Quasi experimental, Non- equivalent control group research design was used in the study. Total 60 participants were selected in the study by non-probability purposive sampling technique from Regional cancer hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. The data was collected by structured knowledge questionnaire tool with interview method for evaluating knowledge level of cancer patients. Structured teaching program was administered in two days for 1 hour (30 minutes in each day).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Result showed that the mean pre test score and standard deviation of knowledge level in experimental group is 10.83± 4.13 and 23.33± 2.64 of post test respectively and mean difference of 12.5&nbsp; Which is highly significant at p value &lt; 0.05 which means the knowledge level of cancer patients was improved after implementation of the structured teaching program By contrast in control group little difference between pre and post test score of knowledge level among cancer patients which is not significant. There was association found between gender, marital status and previous knowledge (p˂0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings of present study showed that the structured teaching program was effective and help in improving knowledge level of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Educating the cancer patients will help them to become more knowledgeable about their own health, treatment and also help in managing side effects at home.</p> Tara Devi Uma Mayan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-24 2022-09-24 37 43 Wound Healing Metabolites to Heal Cancer and Unhealed Wounds <p>Cytotoxic agents were the choice of cancer establishments to combat cancer when President Nixon declared War on Cancer in 1971. After the failure to win the war on cancer during the 5 years of intensive presidential support, it was concluded that cytotoxic agents were unable to win the war on cancer. The emphasis of cancer research was then shifted from cytotoxic agents to DNA research, and gene and targeted therapies during the period of 1976 – 1995. Entire human genomes were sequenced which was a phenomenal achievement. The achievement, however, helped very little on cancer therapy. Studies of aberrant DNA methylations became a fashion, which, however, failed to grasp the critical issue of abnormal methylation enzymes to let the solution of cancer to slip away.&nbsp; Gene therapy was too difficult and too expensive to yield acceptable cancer drugs. Many excellent targeted drugs were discovered, which were good differentiation helper inducers to promote terminal differentiation of cancer cells. These excellent cancer drugs could not replace cytotoxic agents because they were unable to cause the tumor to disappear. These excellent targeted cancer drugs were primarily used for the therapy of hematological cancers. The emphasis was then shifted to anti-angiogenesis studies during 1995-2015, which did not produce good cancer drugs, and now to the immunotherapy, which has produced promising drugs for lung cancer. Immunotherapy has the potential to replace cytotoxic agents. Immunotherapy, however, appears to have the same problems as cytotoxic agents to cause damage to chemo-surveillance and to show ineffectiveness against cancer stem cells, which were primarily responsible for the failure of cytotoxic agents to win the war on cancer. Such deleterious effects can be remedied by the employment of cell differentiation agent formulations.</p> <p>Wound healing metabolites are the nature’s creation of chemo-surveillance to ensure perfection of wound healing to avoid cancer evolution. Cancer arises due to the collapse of chemo-surveillance, thus, wound healing metabolites are the right medicines to heal cancer.</p> <p>These drugs may also be applicable for the therapy of diseases arising due to the collapse of chemo-surveillance such as dementia and tissue fibrosis.</p> Ming C. Liau Christine L. Craig ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-10 2022-08-10 8 20 3D Printing in Drug Delivery; Future of Cancer Therapy <p>Numerous advances have been made in the treatment of cancer, but there have also been a number of drawbacks as a result of the drugs’ inability to reach the affected organs with sufficient precision. As a result, cancer is still listed as the leading cause of fatalities, meanwhile, the treatment itself has many side effects. In cancer therapy, tumor diverseness and inter-patient’s diffrences are seen to be the major issue during the course of therapy, consequently, each patient reacts differently to medication regimens. Dose modifications are usually based on empirical techniques, increasing the likelihood of unfavorable side effects and traditional methods of drug formulation does not allow for customing the dose to specific patient so as to keep costs down, which leaves a glaring unmet need. As a result, improved drug delivery system and a deeper scientific understanding of how pharmaceutical administration affects safety and efficacy are required.</p> <p>Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has recently been regarded as the most groundbreaking and promising technology in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry. The technology mentioned above focuses on novel approaches in the design of solid dosage forms for personalized therapy, transdermal medication, and biomedical applications of additive manufacturing techniques such as implants, surgical models, bio-printed materials, and bio-robotics, among other things. Because of its multiple intrinsic benefits over traditional delivery systems, 3DP technology has received increased attention in recent years in novel drug delivery approaches. As a result, this review’s objective is to provide a thorough overview of the potential and actual applications of 3D printing in cancer chemotherapy drug delivery.</p> Busayo Odunayo Akodu Regina Titilayo Oddiri George Chigozie Njoku Vivien Chiamaka Uzoma Prisca Chimerebere Aririguzo Nancy Otuomasirichi Ogbonna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-08-13 2022-08-13 21 36