Open Access Case Report

An Unusual Reach of Gallbladder Cancer: A Case Report

Devajit Chowlek Shyam

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-5

Introduction: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is one of the common malignancies of the biliary tree but due to its non-specific presentations it always presents in advance stage. Poor prognoses of GBC are due to early metastasis into the Liver bed and the regional lymph nodes (LNs). Extra-abdominal metastasis is rare in GBC and here we are presenting a case of gallbladder cancer with bilateral inguinal lymph node metastasis.

Case Report: A 69-year-old male presented with complains of yellowish discoloration of the eye and urine for 3 months and swelling over the left groin, fever, pain abdomen and loss of appetite for 1 week. Systemic examination revealed gallbladder mass and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. CT scan and FNAC confirm carcinoma gallbladder with metastatic adenocarcinoma.

Discussion: Carcinoma Gallbladder is the most common biliary tree malignancy with as high as 80-95% incidence. The cystic and pericholedochal LNs are the first sites to get involved in the lymphatic spread [1]. There are three major pathways of lymphatic's spread for CGB which ultimately drains into aortocaval LNs. Lymphatic channel blockage by tumor cells leads to the flow of the lymph into retrograde fashion into some unusual sites. Similarly in our case also retrograde flow must have involved the paraaortic LNs from where it must have spread into the pelvic and bilateral Inguinal LNs.

Conclusion: To conclude, bilateral inguinal metastasis is possible in CGB due to retrograde lymph flow due to lymphatic obstruction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Differential miRNA Expression in Oral Cancer Oncosomes: A Pilot In vitro Study

Dannica Brennan, Kunal Patel, Nicole Howard, Karl Kingsley, Katherine Howard

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Aims: Exosomes are small membranous secreted vesicles (30-120 nm) believed to function as intercellular messengers delivering their cargo of RNA and protein to target cells. While many cells secrete exosomes, cancer cells have been found to produce higher numbers of exosomes than normal cells. Cancer specific exosomes, also termed oncosomes, transport intercellular bioactive molecules including proteins, lipids, and microRNAs (miRNA), the latter of which are discarded into the extracellular environment via exosomes. These bioactive molecules can modulate oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) disease progression in vivo. To date, only one study had demonstrated the secretion of oncosomes from cultured OSCC cells, therefore the objective of this study is to determine if intact oncosomes can be isolated from oral cancer cells.

Study Design: This is an observational laboratory-based study of human oral cancer cell cultures.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine between May 2016 and May 2017.

Methodology: Using a reagent that binds water and forces less-soluble lipid vesicles out of solution, oncosomes from oral cancer cell cultures (SCC4, SCC9, SCC15, SCC25 and CAL27) were collected by low-speed centrifugation. qRT-PCR was performed on RNA isolated from the culture-derived oncosomes for miR-21, miR-365, miR-155 and miR-133a1; all previously identified from cancers of other tissues.

Results: Normal, non-cancerous HGF-1 (human gingival fibroblasts) had low (almost) undetectable expression of miR-21, -133, -155, and -365. Oral cancer cell lines (SCC4, SCC9, SCC15, SCC25 and CAL27) had moderate to high expression of at least one microRNA – although this varied significantly by cell line.

Conclusion: Exosomes can be successfully isolated from OSCC conditioned media and miRNAs are detectable through TaqMan microRNA assays, with a unique characteristic expression of the miRNAs in the cell lines examined. Although more investigation is needed, potential correlations between miRNA levels and proliferation rates were also observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytological Analysis of Cervical Papanicolaou Smears in a Tertiary Hospital in Calabar, Nigeria

Godstime I. Irabor, Dominic Akpan, Ejemen G. Aigbe, Gift E. Irabor, Omoruyi A. Kenneth, Ayodele J. Omotoso, Edoise Isiwele, Iyere Irabor

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Background: Cancer of the cervix is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus (HPV) which infects the uterine cervical epithelium. The Papanicolaou smear is a type of exfoliative cytology. Exfoliative cytology is the study of cells desquamated or shed from the body surfaces (e.g. cervix) or lesions for the purpose of diagnosis or cytological analysis.

Aim: To do a cytological analysis of cervical Papanicolaou smears in a tertiary hospital in Calabar, Nigeria.

Study Design: Retrospective prevalence study design.

Study Place and Duration: The study was done at the Department of Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar on cervical smear analyzed between January, 2011 and December, 2013.

Methodology: This is a retrospective prevalence study of the entire cervical smear (conventional smears) analyzed at the Department of Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. The relevant information including sociodemographic data, clinical information and diagnosis of the subjects were obtained from the medical records/cytology register and the information was analyzed.

Results: A total of 525 Pap smear were analyzed during the study period. The age range of the patient is between 18 years and 90 years. The mean age of the subjects is 43 years ± 3 SD. The age group with the highest prevalence is the 41-50 years group making up 32% of the subjects followed by 31- 40 years with a prevalence of 29.5%. The group with the lowest prevalence is the 81 – 90 years with a prevalence of 0.6%. The diagnosis with NILM (negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy) make up 83% of the total diagnosis, followed by high grade intraepithelial lesion – HSIL (6%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion – LSIL (6%), Inadequate (4%) and atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance - ASCUS (1%).

Conclusion: Pap smear results negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) was the commonest diagnosis among the patients who presented for cervical cancer screening. Having a larger number of females without any cervical lesions come for cervical cancer screening is a welcome development that would enable the detection and appropriate treatment of intraepithelial lesion if they develop.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Pulmonary Papillary Carcinoma in Dromedary Camels Affected with Pneumonia: A Sudanese First Report

E. A. Muna, M. A. Zakia, M. A. Abeer

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-7

Aims: To study the pathology of lung tissue affected with tumors and isolate, identify the bacteria associated with these tumors in dromedary camels in Sudan to investigate the relationship between tumor and bacteria.

Study: Design 45 lung samples of camels slaughtered at Tambool abattoir, Al-Gazeera state in Sudan of age ranging between 10-15 years, were subjected to pathological and bacteriological studies using standard methods.

Place of Study: This study was undertaken in the Departments of Pathology and Bacteriology, Central Veterinary Research Laboratories, Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries, Khartoum during 2015.

Methodology: The isolates were characterized using different techniques: conventional, Api kits and automated system Vitek 2 Compact. In histopathological method portions of Lungs tissues were fixed in 10% formalin, processed by standard method for paraffin wax embedding, 5 micron sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E).

Results: Four out of 45 lung samples (8.9%) were diagnosed as pulmonary papillary carcinoma. The most striking changes were complete obliteration of lungs tissues architecture, which were replaced with papillary fibrovascular projections with complex secondary and tertiary branches. The cells lined projections were found in clumps with indefinite pounders and mostly over lapping each other. The nucleoli of this cells showed atypia with vesicular nucleoli forming empty glass appearance, with dark nucleoli, psammome bodies were identified in all cases and were often associated with the papillary component, either within fibrovascular cores or lining epithelium, infiltration of mononuclear cells, haemorrhage, necrosed detached tumor cells, and odema was detected in the affected lungs.

In this study Strep suis (S. suis), Bacillus sp and Staph aureus (S. aureus) were isolated from lungs affected with papillary carcinoma, the isolation of these bacteria may have an importance in the future studies to determine the relationship between bacteria and such tumor.

Conclusion: The current study considered to be the first report for occurrence of pulmonary papillary carcinoma in dromedary camel in Sudan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Profile and Histopathological Aspects of Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma) in Cameroon

Jean Paul Ndamba Engbang, Zacharie Sando, Roxane Odyssée Ze Afane, Godefroy Simo, André Moune, Bruno Djimeli Djougmo, Roger Gilbert Ateba, Amadou Fewou

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-10

Objective: The main objective was to determine the epidemiologic profile and the histologic aspects of nephroblastoma in Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 6 months. It included records of patients from 5 different hospitals in Cameroon that were approved by anatomical pathology laboratory unit. The age, gender, region of origin and histopathologic finding of the tumor were recorded from the laboratory registers for each patient. Data was assembled and stored using Excel 2013 software and was analyzed by 6.0 version of EPI info software.

Results: From this study, kidney cancer is the 2nd cause of urogenital cancers (with 9% of cases) after prostate cancer in Cameroon. Nephroblastoma was the commonest cause of kidney cancer in our country with 80 cases over a period of 14 years (2004-2017). The mean pediatric age was 4,00±2,73 years while the mean adult was 30,25±19,91 years. Males were more affected with 60% predominance and most of them were origins from the west region of the country. The majority of tumors (53.22%) had a favorable histology.

Conclusion: In summary, nephroblastoma has a non-negligible impact in the population of Cameroon and has diverse histopathologic aspects.