Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluate the ADC Values in Probably Benign and Suspicious Malignant Breast Lesions

Chugh Asmita, Saini Manju, M. Goel, A. Kusum, M. Pattanayak, S. Raghuvanshi

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-10

Background: Breast carcinoma is at increasing trend in India. The young age has been found to be a major risk factor for breast carcinoma in Indian females. The age adjusted rate of carcinoma breast is found as high as 41/100,000 in different registries. The conventional imaging for breast have their own limitations. MRI is a promising tool. The diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is influenced by histologic structure and is an indirect evidence of histology.

Aim: To characterize probably benign and suspicious breast lesions with non invasive MRI techniques of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and to correlate the values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with histopathological findings of breast lesions.

Study Design: Observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Department of Radiology of Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, SRH University, Dehradun from September 2016 to June 2018.

Methods: In this observational study, 54 patients were included with diagnosis of BIRADS III and BIRADS IV on X ray mammography and sonomammography. The diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) MRI was done and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated and results were correlated with histopathological outcome.

Results: Comparison between the diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) analysis and histopathological findings reveals that the majority of the lesions 58.7% with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value≤1.03 x10-3 mm2/s (P <.005). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) analysis showed a sensitivity of 73.68%, a specificity of 88.88%, a PPV of 83.25%, an NPV of 82.75% and an accuracy of 82.60%.

Conclusion: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) MRI is a non invasive technique used to discriminate benign and malignant lesions and helps in reducing unnecessary interventions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma in the Mammary Gland of She-Camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan

A. M. Abeer, A. M. Zakia, K. B. Mohammed, E. A. Muna

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-5

Aims of the Study: Survey of udder disorders over one year to investigate the histopathological lesions of tumors in camel (Camelus dromedarius).

Place of Study: The study was undertaken in the Department of Pathology, Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Ministry of Animal Resource and Fisheries, Khartoum, Sudan.

Study Design: 45 tumors of camel udder tissues were obtained from Tumbool abattoir Al-Gazeera State; the gross and histopathological lesions were studied.

Methodology: The macroscopic pictures of samples were reviewed and described, then histopathological lesions were studied using H&E stain. Lastly immunohistochemical staining was done using estrogen, progesterone antibodies and CytoKeratin 5/6.

Results: A survey over a one year was done, 45 tumours were diagnosed, of which 23 were malignant. Only one tumour had features suggestive of intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC).

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this may be the first intra cystic papillary carcinoma reported in the udder of a dromedary worldwide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Pattern of Adult Haematological Malignancies in a Tertiary Hospital in Cross River State

Akaba Kingsley, Nwogoh Benedict, Akpan Idongesit, Bassey Okon Bassey, Ofonime Effiong, Petters Emem, Igwilo Hillary, Onyeulor Ebere, Ushie Godwin Abua

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Background: Haematological malignancies are associated with increase morbidity and mortality in our environment. The pattern and distribution of diagnosed haematological cancers vary with age, sex, geographical location, and ethnicity. The epidemiology of adult haematological malignancies has not been described in our institution. This study aim to describe demographic distribution of affected persons and the types of haematological malignancies seen in our institution.

Methods: This is a 10-year (2009-2018) retrospective study of all adult haematological malignancies seen at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar (UCTH). Data of year of presentation and diagnosis, age, gender, tribe, state of residence, place of origin of the patients and type of haematological malignancy were extracted from the hospital cancer, registry, and haematology medical records and from patients’ case-notes. The data were collated into a Microsoft Excel 2016 spreadsheet and analysed with IBM SPSS Version 22. The results were presented using descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages), and graphical charts.

Results: A total of 1314 cases of malignancies where seen during the study period. One hundred and thirty eight (10.5%) were adult haematological malignancies. Their ages ranged from 16 to 74 years. They include 73(52.9%) males and 65(47.10%) females with a male to female ratio of 1.1:1. Majority of the patients 105 (76.09%) are indigenes of Cross River State. The prevalence of lymphoid malignancies was higher than myeloid (76.81% vs 23.91%). Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was the commonest haematological malignancy (36, 26.09%) followed by Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) 28 (20.29%) while Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and Burkitt’s lymphoma 2 (1.45%) each were the least.

Conclusion: This study has highlighted the burden and epidemiological pattern of HM in our institution and would serve as a term of reference for further studies on the topic and a tool for raising awareness on the disease burden.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prognostic Value of Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Leucocytes in Breast Cancer Patients (South Egypt Cancer Institute Experience)

Shaaban R. Helal, Eman Mosad, Abeer Ibrahim, Abeer Mostafa, Eman Hasssan Ahmed, Doaa F. Temerik

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-11

Introduction and Aim of the Work: Telomeres ensure genome integrity during replication. Loss of telomeric function leads to cell immortalization, accumulation of genetic alterations and tumorigenesis. Telomere length (TL) in previous studies in breast cancer patients suggested the possibility of having valuable prognostic marker.

The goal of this study was to evaluate TL in breast cancer patients by telomere specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) to evaluate the difference between their TL and control group also to correlate between TL and clinicopathological characteristics and survival of those patients

Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study which included 83 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with Stage I to stage IIIC and 20 healthy individuals as control group, for detection of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) by telomere specific FISH.

Results: Our results showed that, the mean length of telomere was 32.26 ±10.08. Patients with short TL had inferior DFS and OS than those with long TL. We found significant associations of short telomere length with advanced stages of disease, starting from stage IIB onwards and with high lymph node involvement. Furthermore, our results showed a significant association with positive Her2 neu expression in tumor (P = 0.001). On the other hand, our results didn't show any significant association with hormonal receptors status.

Conclusion: TL assessment in PBL could be used as a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes in Relation to Age, Stage and Grade among Sudanese Women Patients in Khartoum Oncology Hospital (2013 – 2017)

Mawahib Ahmed Elawad Abu Elgasim, Heba Mustafa Abusin, Manahil Mohamed Nouri

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Background: There is a lack of data regarding molecular subtypes of breast cancer among Sudanese female patients. Moreover to the best of our knowledge no study had correlated the molecular subtypes with age, stage and grade till date. This study aimed to determine breast cancer molecular subtypes among Sudanese women in relation to age, clinical stage and grade and to compare the findings to other related researches.

Methods: Retrospective Study of (255) Sudanese female patients diagnosed with breast cancer from September 2013 to August 2017 in Khartoum Specialized Oncology Center, an information sheet was used to collect data from patients medical records.

Results: The results demonstrated that, the most commonly detected molecular subtype was luminal B (34.9%), followed by triple negative and HER-2 enriched, (31.4%) and (19.2%) respectively. The least common subtype was luminal A, (14. 5%). Additionally, over half of the patients (54.4%) were classified as grade 3 and (22.4%) were diagnosed as stage IIIb.

Conclusion: The main conclusion that can be drawn is that, luminal B was the most commonly diagnosed subtype and it was more common in younger age group in comparison to luminal A. The majority of the patients in the study were grade 3 and stage IIIb and were diagnosed between the age of 41 and 50. Moreover, triple negative subtype was high among Sudanese women and was associated with advance grade breast cancer.