Open Access Case Report

A Novel Prognostic Criteria and Targeted Therapy in Sarcomatoid Variant of Chromophobic Renal Cell Carcinoma

V. V. Ermilov, O. V. Dolzhanski, A. Agarwal, H. A. Mouhammed

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-13

Chromophobic renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma, accounting for only 5.9% of epithelial kidney tumors. This study reports the findings studied in chromophobic renal cell carcinoma case with sarcomatoid differentiation in a 66-year-old patient admitted in Federal State Budgetary Institution (FSBI). This study concludes that, the criteria of aggressive behavior for chromophobic renal cell carcinoma include the following characteristics: The size of the tumor more than 7.0 cm; presence of necrosis; grade III according to Paner et al. classification; sarcomatoid differentiation (more than 30.0%); positive reaction with common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen (CD10); nuclear expression of p53 in more than 80.0% of tumor cells; proliferation marker Ki67 in more than 9.0% of tumor cells. In this case, the indication for targeted therapy was sarcomatoid differentiation (in more than 10.0% of the tumor) and a strong reaction with Vascular endothelial growth factor; 5-6 points ((VEGF-A).

Open Access Case Study

Solitary Osteochondroma of the Second Metacarpal Bone

S. Benzarti, R. Mghirbi, F. Sbei, M. A. Sbai, R. Maalla

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-6

Solitary osteochondroma is a common benign bone tumor, usually developed in long bones. However, it’s localization in the metacarpal bones is exceptional. Only few cases have been reported in the literature.

We report the case of a 21-year-old right handed female who presented with a painful mass of the dorsal aspect of her left hand. This mass appeared at the age of 10 and was growing progressively ever since. For the last three months, she complained of an insidious and intermittent pain localized specifically over the swelling. There was no history of trauma to the hand.

On physical examination there was a swelling of 3,5 cm in diameter, hard in consistency. The mass appeared to be continuous with the second metacarpal bone.

Plain radiographs and Magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with a benign osteochondroma with no radiological evidence of malignancy.

An excisional biopsy with an osteotomy was performed and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychosocial Issues Experienced by Parents of Children with Cancer in Southern Nigeria

Gracia Ker Eke

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-8

Background: Childhood cancers have been on the rise globally. Parents of affected children have to cope with pressures and stresses of treatment often associated with a significantly increased risk of psychosocial issues.

Objectives: To explore the experiences and psychosocial issues of parents whose children were diagnosed and are undergoing treatment for cancer. 

Methods: This qualitative study was conducted between June and November 2018. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews held with 27 parents whose children were being treated for various cancers at the Paediatric Oncology Unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Results: Prior to diagnosis, knowledge of respondent about childhood cancers was deficient. Shock, disbelief and anxiety were often experienced when diagnosis was made known, while fear of the unknown and fear of death were significant concerns. Challenges at the workplace, especially lack of concentration and frequent absences were causes of added distress to mothers, while having a support group was a perceived need to help parents cope better. Positive behavioural changes in families were identified in the course of the child treatment.

Conclusion: Parents caring for children with cancer face a wide range of distresses. There is need to empower healthcare providers as well as community members on ways to support these parents and help them cope with their child's illness and treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Benefits of Docetaxel for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Sudanese Patients and the Effective Number of Cycle and Dose (2013–2017)

Mawahib Ahmed Elawad Abu Elgasim, Yousra Abdelmoniem Suleiman, Ehssan M. Elnazir Ahmed ELmubark, Alaa Albukhari Alrayah Abdalmahmoud, Sujood Abdelmoneim Mohmmed Babkeir, Rogaia Omer, Rayayan Yasin, Khalida Esmaiel Adam Abaker, Roa Osman Ahmed Babker, Anfal Abdalrhman Alryah, Thowibaah Abdalrhman Alzain

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Background: Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men worldwide and in Sudanese people. The initial treatment of choice for prostate cancer is androgen deprivation. If resistant to treatment, this leads to a state termed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) which leads to the use of Docetaxel(Taxotere) which has been a mainstay of therapy for patients with mCRPC.

This study aimed to determine the optimal number of cycles of DOcetaxel plus prednisone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, through the evaluation of a number of parameters, such as performance status, prostate-specific antigen response and pain

Methods: Retrospective study of (60) metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) Sudanese patients who received Docetaxel plus prednisone (duration, 2013–2017).

Area; The Radiation and Isotopes Centre of Khartoum (RICK).Data collected by reviewing medical of records of patients confirmed (mCRPC).

Outcomes: Including: performance status, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and pain. According to this study we found that docetaxel has an effective role in the treatment of mCRPC patients with an optimal number of6–8 cycles every 3 weeks and with a dose of 75 mg

Conclusion: The benefits for using Docetaxel for mCRPC Sudanese patients: declined of PSA serum level, improvement of performance status and pain reduction. Effective optimal number of cycles 6 to 8 every 3 weeks and dose of 75 mg

Open Access Original Research Article

Organoids as a Form of Modern Day Silver Lining

S. Danish Kadir

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-17

Blood Cancer-in the shape of carcinogenesis, is worldwide recognized, as a recent time catastrophe. Its unique capability of sustaining its dormancy, vulnerabilities, of drug screening methodologies, and most importantly therapeutic resistance of tumour affected stem cells(due to the redundancy of CD-133+ cells against Radio therapeutic treatment procedure and existence of MDR-1, and ALDH-1 proteins in drug screening methodologies) [1] has transformed blood cancer, as hardly curable. To face this challenge; Organoids are figured out to be a possible solution. From a researcher’s point of view organoids are generally 3D structured in (vivo) clusters of stem cell molecules [2], showcasing bio-active capabilities. However, the lower success rate of organoids, bespeaking its initial stages of preclinical level of studies. In addition, most of these models & their implications just only been limited to in (vivo) principles and various forms of cancer exemplifying; Blood lymphoma. Interestingly, some recent milestones of organoids in different research models on metastasis reflect the glimpses of hopes. At this present study, we have worked on organoids and their possible involvement in blood cancer. We have emphasized on organoid modelling both in (vivo) and in (vitro) cell culture, which are some excellent sources for cell analysis. Presently, we have established a model where a Nano-sized in (vitro-vivo) cell clustering of organoids with an MRI scanning technique been utilized to build a more precise and useful therapeutic tool. This innovative approach would help us to identify the tumours that will not respond to any conventional therapies. Also in our studies the organoids have shown active cellular level of immunomodulation, leading to a proper signal transduction. As a consequences, this revolutionary model creates opportunities for a better outcome in terms of diagnostics and therapeutics.