Open Access Case Study

Melanoma of the Ciliary Body: About a Case

R. Zerrouk, M. Khmamouche, I. Tarib, Y. Chaoui, Y. Mouzari, F. Elasri, K. Reda, A. Oubaaz

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-5

Melanoma of the ciliary body is extremely rare. It is rarely diagnosed because of its location and the rarity of its associated symptoms. We report the case of a 35-year-old patient who consults for a decrease in visual acuity in whom ophthalmological examination after pupillary dilatation and with the help of ocular ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging has made it possible to objectify a melanoma of the ciliary body.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Management and Treatment of Skin Cancer – Are We Doing it Right?

J. O’Connor, X. Du, B. Adabavazeh, S. Hoque

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-7

Objective: This study aims to identify whether the University Hospital of Lewisham is managing patients according to the published guidelines and to create local guidelines for the identification and management of squamous cell carcinomas.

Design: This was a retrospective cross-sectional standards audit of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma at the University Hospital of Lewisham. A total of twenty patients were chosen at random for this study (out of a total of 79) by the specialist registrar dermatologist using a random number generator. Patients were divided into low-risk, high-risk and not recorded risks of squamous cell carcinoma. The number of follow-ups and the duration of follow-ups per patient was recorded.

Main Outcomes and Measures: To determine whether high-risk and low-risk squamous cell carcinomas are being managed in line with up to date guidelines. This is measured by the number of follow-ups, the duration in months of follow up and the time between each follow-up appointment and appropriate definitive treatment.

Results: This study had a mean age of 75 at diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (range 55-92); 12 of these patients were male and 8 of these patients were female. When comparing high-risk and low-risk squamous cell carcinoma patients using an unpaired t-test there was no statistical significance (p=>0.05) in the length of follow up, the frequency of follow-ups or the time between each follow-up appointment. Only 60% of patients followed up were provided education on self-examination. 100% of patients received appropriate definitive treatment.

Conclusions and Relevance: Management of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinomas at the University Hospital of Lewisham could be improved, especially in patients with low-risk squamous cell carcinomas. By following the suggested guidelines, the trust could reduce follow up appointments and the duration of follow up for low-risk squamous cell carcinoma patients attending the dermatology clinic.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPV-16 and HPV-18 Affects Viability and Proliferation in Normal Breast Tissue Cells

Marie Louisa Heske, Teryn Mendenhall, Karl Kingsley

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Introduction and Aims: Recently HPV-16 and 18 have been found in the oral cavity and have been significantly linked as causative agents of oral cancer.  Research has also shown the effects of HPV on breast cancer cells.  More recently, HPV-16 and 18 have been found in normal breast tissue.  The carcinogenic effects of HPV on oral and breast tissues have been demonstrated; however, the effect of HPV on non-cancerous breast tissue cells has not yet been studied. Based upon this information, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of HPV on normal breast tissue. 

Study Design: This is an observational laboratory-based study of human cell cultures.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas – School of Dental Medicine between May 2017 and May 2019.

Methodology: HPV16 and HPV18 strains were used to infect normal, non-cancerous breast tissue cell lines Bst-Hs578 and 18485 in vitro.  Cellular growth and viability was evaluated to determine if HPV mediated any of these cellular phenotypes.  Cells were plated into 96-well assay plates to measure proliferation. Viability was measured using a BioRad TC20 automated cell counter.

Results: The addition of HPV-16 and HPV-18 had significant effects on cellular phenotypes in both Bst-Hs578 and 184B5 cells. For example, cell viability increased between 21% and 41% in Bst-Hs578 cells and 23% to 53% in 184B5 cells over three days. In addition, cellular proliferation was also significantly altered with both HPV strains in each of the cell lines, increasing approximately two-fold at each of the three-day assay time points. Each of these phenotypes was sustained over the course of one week and three week assays.

Conclusion: Although studies have demonstrated that HPV can modulate oral and breast cancer cells, no studies to date have demonstrated that HPV has the potential to mediate the growth or viability of normal, non-cancerous breast tissue.  This study may be among the first to demonstrate that HPV is capable of modulating these phenotypes in normal, non-cancerous breast tissue – which will be important for dentists, oral healthcare professionals and epidemiologists who are interested in HPV prevention and vaccination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Nutrition-related Cancer Prevention Knowledge among Undergraduate Students in University of Port Harcourt, Rivers Nigeria

Priscilla Akhimien, Foluke Adeniji, Felix Emeka Anyiam

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-12

Background: Undergraduate students are at a developmental period in life in which several health-related behaviours begin to form. Poor nutrition and certain lifestyle habits are the resultant effects of westernization and they are factors that contribute to the rising burden of cancer. This is clearly seen in the current shift from complex carbohydrate diet to refined carbohydrate form.  

Aims: The present study aims to assess the nutrition-related cancer prevention knowledge of undergraduate students at University of Port Harcourt.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt, Rivers Nigeria between June 2018 and August 2018.

Methodology: A total of 423 undergraduate students in the University of Port Harcourt campus, Rivers state, Nigeria were selected with a multistage sampling technique. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire assessed the nutrition-related cancer prevention knowledge of the participants based on the World Cancer Research Fund recommendations.

Results: The results showed that out of 423, only 94 (22%) of the students had good nutrition-related knowledge of cancer prevention. For the general knowledge of nutrition, 210 (49.6%) of the students had good knowledge.

Conclusion: Majority of the students had a good general knowledge of nutrition but the nutrition-related knowledge for the prevention of cancer was low among the students. As a result of these findings, public health education programs that address the dangers of unhealthy food practices as well as improving the nutritional knowledge for cancer prevention among undergraduate student population should be intensified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening among Rural Women in Webuye East Sub - County, Kenya

Peterson K. Kimani, Joseph M. Muchiri, Joseph N. Juma, Dominic Mogere, Enoch Ngetich

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-12

Aims: The study sort to determine factors influencing the uptake of cervical cancer screening services among rural women aged 18-69 years in Webuye East Sub-County, Kenya.

Study Design: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Webuye East Sub-County, Bungoma County, Kenya, between December 2018-March 2019.

Methodology: The study adopted a quantitative data collection technique to a target population of 125 rural women aged 18-69 years.

Data on social demographics and social-cultural factors, level of uptake, level of awareness and health care facility factors influencing cervical cancer screening variables were collected using structured questionnaires. Data were verified, coded, and analysed with SPSS version 25. Descriptive statistics were analysed and presented in tables. Chi-square tests were carried out to determine the link between categorical variables.

Results: The use of screening facilities for cervical cancer was found to be low at 26% (33/125). On the overall, the study showed a significant relationship between age [p=0.05], women with insurance cover [p=0.00] and income [p=0.01].

Conclusions: Cervical cancer screening is low women in the study area. The study concludes that there is a significant/potential possibility of improving women’s participation in cervical screening if regular best practices are embraced.

Recommendations: The study recommends that Women enrol in health insurance schemes to ensure that they access screening services together with enhancing community awareness on cervical cancer.