Open Access Systematic Review Article

The Effects of Massage Therapy on Symptom Management among Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review

Asala Alhamdoun, Khaled Alomari, Mohammad Al Qadire

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 38-45

Aims: To review the literature about the effects and benefits of massage therapy on symptom management among patients with cancer.

Methodology: Systematic literature review approach was adopted. The search was conducted in several databases including EBSCO & CINHAL, PubMed, Google Scholar and MEDLINE. The keywords included “massage therapy”, “cancer”, “chemotherapy”, “pain” and “palliative care”. Data were extracted and reviewed by the researchers independently. Data were collected included the authors' names, settings, goals of the study, type of study, methods, sample, and the main findings. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were included.

Results: The studies were conducted in different regions of the world. The sample size ranged from 24 to 711 participants. Four of the nine studies used a randomized controlled design. Massage therapy found to reduce the severity of several symptoms among cancer patients and improve patients’ wellbeing.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this review, it can be concluded that the use of massage therapy, as a non-pharmacological intervention, has benefits for patients with cancer. Massage therapy appeared to be effective in symptom management of pain, anxiety, fatigue, nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. No adverse effects of massage therapy have been reported.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Contamination and It’s Cancer Risk in Swampy Agricultural Soils across Karu, Nasarawa West, Nigeria

Usman Rilwan, Auta Abdullahi Abbas, Shu’aib Muhammad, Hassan Abdullahi Abdullahi

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-12

Swampy agricultural soils could be contaminated as a result of accumulation of heavy metals through emission from industrial areas, mines tailings, metal wastes, gasoline, paints, fertilizers, manure, sewage sludge, pesticide, waste water irrigation, coal combustion residue, spillage of petrochemicals and atmospheric deposition. This study aimed at evaluating the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the study area using X-Ray fluoroscopy. The results showed that, mean concentration level in the area was in decreasing order Cu(342.2) > Cr(486.6) > Ni(339.1) > Zn(421.6) >Pb(331) > Cd(336.6) > As(31.7). The Hazard Quotient (HQ) was all recorded to be low except ingestion adult which was higher than unity. The Hazard Index (HI) was also recorded to be 2.3 a value greater than one (>>1). This makes non-carcinogenic effects significant to the population and poses serious effects in the area under study. The total excess life cancer risk was found to be (5.0 x 10-2), a value greater than that of U.S (1.0x10-4 to 1.0x10-6) and above that of South Africa (5.0x10-6). This implies that there is a probability that one person in 1,000 may be affected. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the soils and the crops cultivated at the sample locations is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Global DNA Methylation Profile of Head and Neck Squamous Carcinoma Patients at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

V. I. Akinmoladun, F. V. Edem, O. A. Popoola, O. G. Arinola

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 13-19

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is commonly associated with tobacco and alcohol exposures among other risk factors, which are linked with epigenetics. Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation are increasingly implicated in the initiation and progression of cancer. This study quantitated global DNA methylation in peripheral blood of HNSCC patients and controls. The influence of environmental risk factors, age and gender on DNA methylation were also evaluated.

Methods: Venous blood samples were obtained from participants. DNA extraction was carried out using Qiagen kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Level of global DNA methylation was obtained with an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA)-based technique (Cell Biolab, CA). Methylated DNA concentrations were obtained by interpolation of the standard curve. Select samples done in duplicates served as intra-assay controls. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS 20. Quantitative variables were summarised as means or medians as appropriate. An independent t-test was used to compare methylation values across cases and control groups and for various independent variable response categories. A multiple linear regression was fitted to explore the influence of study assignment, gender and age on DNA methylation values. All significance testing was conducted at α - 0.05.

Results: Global DNA methylation was higher in cases (10.24 ± 3.85) relative to controls (9.35 ± 3.34). This was however not statistically significant. Females (11.12 ± 4.49) were significantly hypermethylated relative to the males (9.03 ± 2.74). A linear regression analysis showed female gender as the only significant predictor of methylation. Females had values on average 0.28 units higher than males after correcting for age and study assignment. Tobacco and alcohol users among cases did not have significantly higher methylation values than non-users.

Conclusion: Relative hyper methylation was recorded among cases. However, only gender had a significant relationship with DNA methylation in HNSCC in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiproliferative Potentials of Zingiber officinale in Testosterone Induced Prostate Hyperplastic Albino Wister Rats

U. A. Obisike, N. Boisa, E. O. Nwachuku, N. Nduka

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 20-30

Aims: The present study evaluated the anti-proliferative potential of Zingiber officinale - Zo (Ginger) rhizome and Dutasteride (Avodart) singly and in combination on testosterone propionate (TP) induced benign prostatic hyperplastic (BPH) male albino wistar rats.

Study Design: This study is an interventional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, University of Port Harcourt, between April and September, 2019.

Methodology: A total of 70 adult male albino wistar rats that weighed between 170-200 g were used for this study. They were fed with commercial rat diet and clean drinking water. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ginger rhizome were prepared using the maceration method. BPH was induced in rats after they were subjected to bilateral orchiectomy by daily injections of TP (4 mg/kg Rats were treated with 500 or 1500 mg/kg b.wt. of aqueous or ethanoI extracts of Zo rhizome, dutasteride or in combination. Administration of extracts was done by gavage. Plasma prostate specific antigen (PSA) was analysed using sandwich ELISA Kits by Shanghai Korain Biotech Co., Ltd, China, prostatic weight (PW) was determined using a weighing balance while rat prostatic volume (PV) was calculated from measured prostatic length, breath and height. Prostatic indices (PI) and percentage prostatic growth inhibition (Percent. I) by the extracts were calculated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 22.0 of Windows Stat Pac and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The results showed that 500 and 1500 mg/kg b.wt. of Zo rhizome administered orally after exogenous injection of TP and BPH had been established for 15 days, significantly decreased (p=0.000) mean PV, PW, PI and PSA levels in treated rat groups compared with BPH induced rat groups. Both doses of the Zo extracts individually and in combination with dutasteride also markedly decreased (p=0.000) mean PV, PW, PI and PSA, indicating that there could be synergistic interaction between the Zo and the drug. Individual extract and in combination with dutasteride also produced high percentage inhibition of the prostate. Simultaneous administration of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Zo rhizome with TP injection for 30 days also showed anti-proliferative qualities, although the effects were statistically not better than values for treatments done when BPH was established before treatment. Ethanolic extracts of both Zo rhizome produced better effects compared to the aqueous extracts.

Conclusion: From the findings, we conclude that ginger rhizome could reduce and inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate in albino wistar rats and is suggested for further studies, especially in humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy and Side Effects of Generic (Osloda®) and Brand-Name (Xeloda®) Capecitabine in Metastatic Breast Cancer

Parastoo Hajian, Farnaz Tabatabaie, Hamidreza Mirzaei

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 31-37

Purpose: To compare the efficacy and side effects of brand-name capecitabine (Xeloda®) vs. generic (Osloda®) in metastatic breast cancer.

Methods: In this non-randomized clinical trial, 39 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included and divide into Xeloda® (19 patients, mean age of 49.5 years) or Osloda® (20 patients, mean age of 51.7 years) groups. A total of six 3-week cycles (1250 mg/m2 daily) were administered. Efficacy and side effects were documented in a three-year follow-up period.

Results: The four most common treatment-related adverse events did not differ significantly in Xeloda group vs. Osloda group including hand-foot syndrome (68.4% vs. 65%, P= 0.82), Anorexia (47.4% vs. 50%, P= 0.86), pain (57.9% vs. 40%; P= 0.26), and nausea (52.6% vs. 35%; P= 0.26). Most patients in both groups (25 subjects) showed partial response. Nine patients in each group died (47.4% in Xeloda group and 45% in Osloda group, P= 0.88). Mean overall survival was 20.13 months in Xeloda group and 25.82 months in Osloda group (P= 0.47).

Conclusion: Xeloda and Osloda had comparable efficacy and side effects in metastatic                    breast cancer. Considering the lower cost of Osloda, this agent can be used instead of           Xeloda.