Open Access Case Study

Spindle Cell Sarcoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Kiran Kumar B. R., V. Chendil, P. Shylini, J. Rajesh, Amrut S. Kadam, B. K. Raghavendra, Deepak Sharma

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 44-48

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histology of the uterine cervix. Sarcomatoid variety of the cervix cancer is a rare morphologic entity. The prognosis for women with cervical sarcoma tends to be worse than that of squamous histology.

Case Presentation: We are reporting a case of a 57 years old female with primary malignant cervical tumour showing spindle cell tumour in histopathology and immunohistochemistry positive for cytokeratin and vimentin.

Interventions: Patient underwent abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral Salphingoophorectomy and post op event was uneventful. The final diagnosis of Spindle cell sarcoma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination.

Conclusion: Spindle cell Sarcoma of the cervix is a rare pathology. High grade Spindle cell tumours continue to have a poor prognosis due to its highly malignant, aggressive, and refractory nature to local treatment which necessitates the early intervention to improve the survival.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency and Pattern of All Cancer Cases at Thika Level Five Hospital in Kiambu County, Kenya

Patrick K. Ruto, Esther Muitta, Alfred Owino, Francis W. Makokha

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Aims: To determine the frequency and pattern of cancer cases and provide baseline for the establishment of a cancer registry based on calculated incidence rates, prevalence, and morbidity of cancer cases.

Study Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional design was applied.

Place and Duration of Study: Thika Level Five Hospital cancer pain management department, between April 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: A total of 574 records of cancer patients were examined from the clinical health registers of cancer patients for cancers that occurred between January 2013-December 2018 from the health records department of the cancer pain management department in the hospital. In Thika Level Five Hospital for data abstraction. Variables such as sex, age of patient, date of cancer incidence, primary anatomical sites of cancer origins including the county of patient residence were recorded in defined standardized abstraction forms specific for each noted cancer case. Proportionate cancer frequency, incidence rates and morbidity for every year under investigation was calculated. In each frequency it is absolute value and proportions are in percentages. The quantitative data was entered into Excel spreadsheet and cleaned, and after coding, the data was imported into SPSS version 21 for analysis. Approval was obtained from Mount Kenya University (MKU) Institutional Research Ethics Committee and a license obtained from National Commission of Science, Technology, and Innovation (NACOSTI). Authorization to collect data was obtained from Thika Level Five Hospital.

Results: Data was abstracted from 574 records out of which186 (32.4%) were for male patients while 387 (67.4%) were for female patients. The top ten cancers by site where cervix 146 (24.0%), breast 88 (14.0%), esophagus 88 (13.4%), stomach 49 (10.1%%), prostate 29 (5.1%), liver 26 (4.2%), colorectal 22 (3.8%), skin 20 (3.5%), pancreas17 (3.0%), and gall bladder 10 (1.7%). The proportionate cancer morbidity of both in-patient and out-patient prevalence between January 2013 and December 2018 for all ages was 49.6 per 100,000 population. Patient age ranged from 2-100 years, with a mean age of 57.2 years Kiambu County had most of the cancer patient at 43% followed by Murang’a County (38%) and Machakos County (4%).

Conclusion: Cervical cancer was identified to be the most common cancer generally while esophagus cancer and breast cancers were the major cancer types among females and males, respectively. Also, at the age of 55 - 69 years one is at higher risk of developing cancer as this age group accounts for more than 50% of the reported cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Uptake of Oncology Specialized Health Care Services in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

Linner Chepngetich Soy, Eunice Muthoni Mwangi, Musa Oluoch

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 10-23

In Kenya, absence or poor access for oncology services has escalated the total national mortality rate in Kenya. Despite numerous studies on the increased prevalence and incidence of cancers, there is insufficient empirical literature explaining the factors influencing the increased absence or poor of access to oncology tertiary healthcare services in Uasin Gishu County, a research gap filled by this study. This study determined factors influencing access to oncology specialized healthcare services among patients in Uasin Gishu. Using descriptive research design, the study employed a census survey on population of 142 screened oncology patients in the 18 level 3 and 4 facilities in Uasin Gishu County. Data was collected using structured questionnaires. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and then inferential analysis with results presented in form of tables and figures. The data was analysed with assistance of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 22.0. The study reveals that at 0.05 (5%) level of significance, there exists a significant relationship between each of; affordability of oncology services, location of oncology services, acceptability of oncology services, and availability of oncology specialized healthcare services and uptake of oncology specialized healthcare services in Uasin Gishu County. The study recommends that since health is a devolved function, the county government of Uasin Gishu should seek to provide affordable oncology services through establishment of a strategy for low income oncology patients and stakeholder participations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ameliorative Potentials of Cleanshield Liquid Supplement in Testosterone Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplastic (BPH) Rat Model

O. C. Ozoana, U. A. Obisike

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 24-34

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Cleanshield Liquid Supplement in Testosterone Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasic (BPH) in male albino rats

Study Design:  This study is a case controlled experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between December, 2019 and May, 2020.

Methodology: A total of 30 male albino wistar rats were used for this study and divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Testosterone propionate (4 mg/kg) was used to induced BPH subcutaneously in the rats and then were given (0.5 mg/kg) dutasteride, an anti-BPH drug and Cleanshield liquid supplement (0.24ml, 0.48ml and 0.72ml) for 30 days. At the end of the 30 days treatment, the animals were sacrificed. Chloroform was used to anaesthetize the rats and 5 ml of whole blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture at the end of 8 hours fast. The blood samples collected were separated and the serum was used to analyze for prostate specific antigen (PSA) using rat specific PSA ELISA kit produced by Shanghai Korain Biotech Co., Ltd, China, while liver enzymes (alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) were analyzed using spectrophotometric method. Liver tissues of the rats were excised and used for histological analysis. SPSS version 22.0 was used for statistical analysis and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The results showed that comparison between the Cleanshield treated groups and the Avodart group (group 3) showed no significant difference but there was a non-significant reduction in the mean PSA values of all the clean shield treated group with the group that received the highest amount of Cleanshield having the most reduced mean PSA value. The mean PSA value of the negative control group (NC) compared to dutasteride group and all Cleanshield group showed statistically significant difference. The mean ALT values did not show any significant difference statistically when the groups that received Cleanshield supplement were compared to PC group. In the mean values of AST, only the comparison between anti BPH group and the group that received 0.72ml of Cleanshield produce statistically significant difference (p=0.036). That of the ALP comparison between the mean ALP values of the PC group (grp 2) showed significant difference against group 2(p=0.001) and against group 5 (p=0.003). Avodart group (group 3) showed a statistical difference when compared to group 4(0.24 ml of Cleanshield) at p=0.000. Group 4(0.24 ml of Cleanshield) showed statistical difference when compared to group 5(0.48ml of Cleanshield) at p=0.001.

Conclusion: Conclusively, Cleanshield liquid supplement is not toxic to the liver but does not possess significant BPH ameliorative potentials.

Open Access Review Article

Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Gastric Cancer – Review

Deep Shankar Pruthi, Puneet Nagpal

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 35-43

Surgical excision forms the main treatment of gastric cancer. However, even after surgery, the median survival is limited to 12 to 20 months due to the high frequency of loco regional and/or metastatic recurrences. This led to clinical trials associating surgery with various forms of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatments to improve tumour control and patient survival. The most common studied modalities are perioperative chemotherapy and adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy and both of these have shown improved survival. The aim of this review is to compile current knowledge about adjuvant radiotherapy in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma and to discuss the various techniques available and its toxicities.