Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Breast Cancer among Women in Rivers East Senatorial District

Goodluck Azuonwu, Elizabeth Nwobiarire Amadi, Comfort Emma Elechi

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 1-9

Knowledge is a primary step towards achieving behaviour change in the prevention of breast cancer. In recent years, breast cancer has been prevalent especially among women, however information on the level of knowledge of this illness especially in the study location is scarce. This study thus investigated the knowledge of breast cancer among women in Rivers East Senatorial District. The descriptive cross-sectional research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of all 545,056 women in Rivers East Senatorial District with a sample size of 1,200 women determined using the Taro Yamane’s formula and selected using the multistage sampling procedure. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.74 and analysed; results were presented using charts and tables. The finding of this study showed that overall, 558(50.4%) had good knowledge of breast cancer. It was concluded that women in Rivers East senatorial District have average knowledge of breast cancer. It was recommended that, health educators should establish a sustainable awareness campaign for women about breast cancer preventive practices through the mass and social media as well as other channels of communication, such as posters, handbills, and fliers among others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Palliative Care Knowledge among Nursing Students at Tabuk University

Murad Abdulrahim Alkhalaileh

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 20-27

Background: Palliative care directed towards the management of symptoms eases the burden of pain and enhances the quality of life. Palliative care helps in alleviating patients’ suffering and improves their quality of life. Nursing students reported a low level of palliative care knowledge

Aims: To evaluate student nurses’ knowledge of palliative care in the University of Tabuk.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences (FAMS), Nursing Department. Data were collected between October 2019 to December 2019.

Method: Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained. The research instrument was adopted to measure participants’ knowledge of palliative care. It consists of 20 true, false or don’t know items. A convenience sample of 200 students (second year, third year, fourth year, and interns’ students) was recruited. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaire distributed to students. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22.

Results: One hundred and nighty-three (193) were collected (response rate 96.5%). Findings demonstrate that students have insufficient knowledge about all components of palliative care. The Mann-Whitney Test results showed no significant difference in students score in regard to previous palliative care education (U = 3034, z = -1.47, P=.141) or gender (U = 3878, z = -.687, P = .492).

Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that student nurses lack an adequate knowledge of palliative care. Meanwhile, short courses might compensate for lack of palliative care courses and insufficient students’ knowledge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Patterns of Cervical Cytological Lesions among HIV-Positive Women in Machakos County Hospital Kenya

Mutuku Onesmus Muia, Scholastica Gatwiri Mathenge, Wachuka Gathigia Njoroge, Titus Kamau Karuga, Kyama Cleophas Mutinda

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 28-35

Background: Cervical cancer remains to be a major threat to health among women globally with highest incidences in the developing countries. Studies have showed that HIV-positive women are at higher risk of HPV infection which is the causative agent of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical cytological lesions among HIV infected women in Machakos county hospital Kenya.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Machakos County Hospital Comprehensive Care Centre and Machakos Cancer Care and Research Centre, between August 2020 and December 2020.

Methodology: A total of 400 women who were HIV-positive and attending the comprehensive care center at the facility were enrolled in this study. Cytological samples obtained using a cytobrush were processed using manual liquid based cytology technique. All smears were stained using the Papanicolaou staining method and examined microscopically for cervical cytological lesions. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the association between cervical cytological lesions and the demographic variables.

Results: A total of 400 participants were enrolled in this study. 15 had unsatisfactory smears and thus excluded from analysis. The prevalence of cervical cytological lesions in this study was 30 out of 385 (7.8%). Of the cervical cytological lesions observed, Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) had the highest number of cases 9 (30%) while Atypical Squamous Cells cannot exclude High grade (ASC-H) had the least number of cases 2 (6.6%). Of all the demographic variables studied, none was found to have any statistical significant association with cervical cytological lesions.

Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical cytological lesions among HIV-positive women in this study was 7.8%. There was no statistical significance association between any of the demographic variables studied and cervical cytological lesions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend in Cancer Cases Diagnosed at Kiambu and Gatundu Level 5 Hospitals, Kiambu County Kenya between 2013 and 2017

Linet W. Warui, Mbaruk A. Suleman, Francis W. Makokha, Moses Kamita

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 36-48

Aims: This study sought to estimate the Trend in Cancer cases diagnosed at Kiambu and Gatundu Level 5 Hospitals, Kiambu County Kenya between 2013 and 2017.

Study Design:  Descriptive cross-sectional design.

Place and Duration of Study: Kiambu and Gatundu level 5 health facilities between 2013 and 2017 (Kenya).

Methodology: The study utilized standardized abstract forms were used to collect data. Data from abstract forms was filled with information from Kiambu Level Five Hospital and Gatundu Level Five Hospital record department in the five-year period 2013-2017. The records guided in retrieving of patient’s files in order to collect personal data of each patient as well as the status of cancer during the first contact with the health providers in selected health facilities.

Results: From the two hospitals, Gatundu level 5 and Kiambu level 5, 180 cancer patients registered as 66.7% (120) and 33.3% (60). In terms of distribution of cancer cases by sex 123 were females while 57 were males. Cervical cancer and breast cancer were the most common forms of cancers among women accounting for 33.4% and 11.7%. Esophageal and Stomach were the most common forms of cancers among males. There were more cancer cases between the age of 41-60(47 in Gatundu and 29 in Kiambu level 5 hospitals).

Conclusion: In terms of gender female’s cervical cancer was the leading cancer while stomach cancer was more common among males.

Recommendations: More cancer awareness programs should be adopted to the public in order to reduce preventable cancer cases and eventually eradicated cancer.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Chemoradiotherapy versus Chemotherapy on Operability and Survival in Patients with Locally Advanced Surgically Inoperable Pancreatic Cancer: A Randomized Trial

Fatma Ibrahim, Mohamed ELawadi, Doaa Ali, Ahmed Abdallah, Saleh Ta-Ema

International Research Journal of Oncology, Page 10-19

Aims: To determine the tolerability and efficacy (as regards response, toxicity, resectability, progression free survival, and overall survival) of chemotherapy alone versus induction chemotherapy then concurrent 3D conformal radiotherapy.

Study Design:  This was a prospective double arm study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Mansoura University Hospital, Mansoura and Meet Ghmmr oncology centre, Egypt, between May 2017 and June 2019.

Methodology: Between May 2017 and June 2019, 58 patients with biopsy-proven localized unresectable pancreatic cancer were treated either with chemotherapy alone (n=27) or chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy (n=31). Radiation therapy was delivered with a dose of 50.4 Gy in a single fraction of 1.8 Gy using 3D conformal radiotherapy and concurrent CT was typically given with capecitabine at a dose of 825 mg/m2 twice daily orally from Saturday to Wednesday throughout the whole course of radiotherapy. They received induction chemotherapy gemcitabine-cisplatin in arm I (6 cycles) and arm II (4 cycles), {gemcitabine dose of 1000 mg/m2, cisplatin dose of 50 mg/m2D1+D15 every 4 weeks}. Surgery was done for responders.

Results: Overall response rate was 66.7% & 96.8% in chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy groups respectively with statistically significant difference; no complete was achieved (P=0.004). Four patients (14.8 %) in group1and ten patients (31.25%) in group 2 became resectable with no statistical significant difference between both groups (P=0.121). No statistically significant difference in the occurrence of toxicities between the two groups except for diarrhea and stomatitis that were significantly higher in chemoradiotherapy group. There were no reported grade 4 toxicities. The median follow-up time was 18 months. Median progression free survival was statistically significant and higher in chemoradiotherapy group than in chemotherapy group (12 & 9 months respectively); P = 0.024. Median overall survival was higher but not statistically significant in chemoradiotherapy (22 months) versus 14 months in chemotherapy group; P = 0.054.

Conclusion: concurrent chemoradiotherapy using capecitabine and 3D conformal radiotherapy with initial systemic gemcitabine plus cisplatin is tolerable, effective and offers good local control for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. This protocol showed a significantly better overall response and progression free survival but no overall survival benefit.